Fistula – causes, symtoms, types…

What is Fistula in ano ?

This disease is said to have existed about more than 4000 years. In spite of the tremendous developments of modern medical science in surgery, to cure fistula-in-ano is a challenge for medical world. The Father of surgery ‘ Sushrut ‘ explained this disease & its permanent cure 4000 years before. The types, causes, symptoms of bhagandara ( fistula) & its treatment explained by Sushrut Maharhi is working till today. It proves the stability of the divine knowledge of AYURVEDA.

What is Fistula ?

Anal Fistula is an abnormal tube like passage (communication) between the interior of the anal canal (or rectum) and the outer skin surface around the anus. One opening of the fistula (Internal opening) is inside the anus (or rectum) and another opening ( External opening) is on skin surface around the anus. A tube like structure ( Fistula track) connect them.

Causes of fistula :

  • Lack of cleanliness in anal region
  • Ignored fissure can get infected and get converted in to fistula
  • Spicy & fast food habits , sitting job
  • Improper drainage of ishtio rectal abscess
  • Can cause as a complication in Abscess, Tuberculosis.(T.B) , Cancer , IBS ( Inflammatory bowel Syndrome), Ulcerative colitis , Crohn’s disease

Symptoms of fistula :

  • Persistant seropurulent ( sticky) discharge of pus and/or stool from the external opening near anus
  • History of recurrent swelling & abscess on buttock
  • Itching & moist feeling in the anal area
  • Pain in the lump on buttock
  • Flatus (gas) escape from external skin opening

Diagnosis Techniques for fistula :

  • Fistula Probing
  • Fistulogram
  • MRI
  • Endorectal ultra sonograpy

Types of fistula :

  • Low anal (75%)
  • High anal (8%)
  • Subcutaneous(5%)
  • Ano rectal (7%)
  • Sub mucous (5%)

Types with reference to Sphincter :

  • Inter sphinteric (64%)
  • Trans sphinteric (30%)
  • Sub mucous(5%)
  • Extra sphintric (1%)
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